இஸ்லாம் கல்வியறிவு பெறுவதை புறந்தள்ளி, வெறும் ஆன்மீக ரீதியாக மனிதனை பக்தி மயமாக வைத்திக்க ஆசைப்படும் மார்க்கம் அல்ல. மாறாக, கல்வியின் முக்கியத்துவத்தைக் குறித்து ஆன்மிகம் மூலமாக, தன் நம்பிக்கையாளர்களுக்கு கற்பித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கிறது. நபியே நீர் ஓதுவீராக! (படிப்பீராக) என்ற முதல் குர்ஆனிய வார்த்தைகளும், “கல்வி கற்பது ஒவ்வொரு முஸ்லிமான ஆண், பெண் மீது கட்டாயக் கடமை’ என்கிற நபிமொழி வாக்கியங்களும், இஸ்லாம் அறிவின் தேடலுக்கு எவ்வகையான முக்கியத்துவத்தை அளிக்கிறது என்பதைக் குறித்து நமக்கு விளக்குகிறது. மேலும் பள்ளிவாயில்கள் (இறையில்லங்கள்) அறிவின் சதுக்கங்கலாகவும், கற்பிக்கக்கூடியத் தளமாகவும் செயல்பட்டதை வரலாற்றுப் பதிவுகள்  மூலம் சுட்டிக் கட்டுகிறது.

8 முதல் 12ம் வரையிலான ஐந்து நூற்றாண்டுகள், முஸ்லிம்கள் மத்தியில் கல்வியறிவில் வளர்ச்சி, தொட்டதில் எல்லாம் சாதனைகள், என இஸ்லாமிய மறுமலர்ச்சி காலமாக போற்றப்பட்டன. கற்றல், கற்பித்தல், தகவல் நுட்பம், கல்வியியலில் வளர்ச்சி என, இஸ்லாம் தனக்கே உரிய ஒழுங்கியல் சிந்தனைகளால் உலகை தன் வசப்படுத்திகொண்டது. முஸ்லிம்களின் தத்துவார்ந்த சிந்தனைகளும், அறிவியல் சிந்தனைகளும் இஸ்லாமிய எண்ணோட்டத்தின் அடிப்படையில் அணுகியதே அதற்கு முக்கிய காரணமாக அமைத்தது. முன் எப்போதும் இல்லாத அளவுக்கு முஸ்லிம்கள் கல்வி கற்பவர்களாக, ஆய்வாளர்களாக உருவெடுத்தனர். இஸ்லாம் என்ற ஒற்றை சித்தாந்தம், பல நல்ல இஸ்லாமியத் தலைவர்களை, இந்த உலகிற்கு பரிசாகத் தந்தது.

துறை ரீதியாக எல்லாத் தளங்களிலும் இஸ்லாமியச் சிந்தனையைக் கொண்டு சேர்க்க முஸ்லிம் சிந்தனையாளர்கள் கடுமையாக உழைத்ததோடு, கல்வியியலில் பல முன்னேற்ற மாற்றங்களை கொண்டு சேர்த்தனர். ஆனால், அரசியல் ரீதியாக முஸ்லிம்களிடம் இருந்த கவனக் குறைவால்,. அதை சரியாக பயன்படுத்திக் கொண்ட முஸ்லிம் அல்லாத சிந்தனையாளர்கள், இன்று யாராலும் அசைத்துப்பார்க்க முடியாத சக்திகளாக, எல்லாத் துறைகளிலும் தடம் பதித்துள்ளனர். மேலும், அந்த அதிகாரத்தின் விளைவு, கடந்த இரண்டு நூற்றாண்டுகளாக இஸ்லாமிய நாடுகள் மீதும், முஸ்லிம்கள் மீதும் (ஆயுதம், அறிவு என இருவகை) தாக்குதல்கள் அரங்கேறின.

அது, சில இஸ்லாமியத் தலைவர்களை புரட்சியின் பக்கம் மக்களை அழைக்கத் தூண்டியது. குறிப்பாக எகிப்து, துருக்கி ஆகிய நாடுகள் எதிர் தாக்குதல்களில் மூர்க்கமாக களமிறங்கின. முஸ்லிம்களின் அரசியல், பொருளாதாரம், பாதுகாப்பு ரீதியாக மறு நடவடிக்கை எடுக்க முடிவு செய்தார்கள். ஆனால், இருநாடுகளின் எல்லா நகர்வுகளும் மேற்குலகச் சிந்தனையின் அடிப்படையில் உம்மத்தை நகர்த்தியதால்,  இன்று பொதுநலன் என்ற போர்வையில் இஸ்லாமியக் கல்விக்கூடங்களும், இஸ்லாமியச் சட்ட வரைமுறைகளும் துருக்கியின் முன்னாள் அதிபர் முஸ்தபா கமல் அதாதுர்க்- ஆல் அந்நாட்டிலிருந்து அழித்தொழிக்கப்பட்டது. மேலும், மேற்குலக சிந்தனையை குறைந்தளவில் பின்பற்றிவந்த எகிப்து நாட்டில், அண்மையில் இஸ்லாமிய நடைமுறையோடு, மேற்குலக கலாச்சாரத்தையும் ஒத்து பின்பற்றியதன் விளைவு, அந்நாட்டுக்குத் தோல்வியையே தந்தது. தற்போது, அந்த இருநாடுகளின் நிலை, எண்ணிக்கையில் பல முஸ்லிம்களைக் கொண்டு ஆட்சி, அதிகாரம் இருந்தும் எதற்கும் கையாலாகாத மற்ற முஸ்லிம் நாடுகளைப் போன்று தன் பலத்தை இழந்துள்ளன.

கல்விமுறையை மாற்றி, பொருளாதார ரீதியாக முஸ்லிம்களை முன்னேற்ற வேண்டும், எனும் நோக்கத்தில் முஸ்லிம் சமூகத்தை நவீனபடுத்த சில முஸ்லிம் சிந்தனையாளர்கள் பல வழிகளை மேற்கொண்டனர். அவர்களில் சையது அஹமது கான் மற்றும் முஹம்மது அப்து ஆகியோர் முக்கிய பங்காளர்களாக செயல்பட்டனர். இவர்களின் செயல்பாடுகள் நவீனக் கல்விக்கூடங்கள் எனப் பல வெற்றிக் கொண்டாட்டங்களைத் தந்தாலும், மேற்குலகக் கல்வியால் எந்த பாதிப்பும் வந்துவிடாது, அது முஸ்லிம் சமூகத்திற்குத்தான் நன்மை பயக்கும் என்ற தவறானக் கண்ணோட்டம், தோல்வியையே பரிசாகத் தந்தது. இன்று நவீனக் கல்விமுறையைக் கொண்ட (சமூக அறிவியல், அறிவியல், பொருளாதாரம், அரசியல் அதிகாரம்.,) போன்றப் பாடங்கள் அனைத்தும் மேற்குலகச் சிந்தனையின் அடிப்படையிலேயே அமைந்தவை என்பதை அவர்கள் உணர்ந்திருக்கவில்லை. மேற்குலக நவீனத்தைக் கொண்டு ஒருபோதும் இஸ்லாத்தோடு ஒப்பிட வாய்ப்பில்லை.  ஏனென்றால், இரண்டின் அடிப்படைக் கோட்பாடுகளும் வேறு வேறு. இஸ்லாமிய இயலைத் தொடாமல் மாற்றத்தை கொண்டு வந்ததால், மாற்றம் ஏமாற்றத்தையே வழங்கும் என்பதே நிதர்சனம்.

மற்றொரு நிலையில் முஸ்லிம் மாணாக்கர்களை இஸ்லாமிய அடிப்படையிலான கல்வியியலில் பயிற்றுவித்து, இஸ்லாம் சொல்லும் அறிவியல் கோட்பாடுகளை ஆய்வு செய்பவர்களாக, மொத்தத்தில் இஸ்லாமிய அடிப்படையிலான கல்வி நிலையங்களை இந்தியாவில் பல்லாண்டுகளாக, இஸ்லாமிய சிந்தனையாளர்கள்/ஆய்வாளர்கள் இயக்கி வந்தார்கள். அந்த கல்வி நிறுவனங்கள் இஸ்லாத்தை மட்டுமே அடிப்படையாக வைத்ததோடு மட்டுமல்லாது, மேற்குலகக் கல்விமுறையை தங்கள் நிறுவனங்களில் அண்டாமல் பார்த்துக் கொண்டனர். இஸ்லாமிய வாழ்வியலைக் கடைப்பிடித்து வாழக்கூடிய எதிர்காலத் தலைமுறையினரை உருவாக்குவதில் கவனம் செலுத்தி, தனது மாணவர்களை நவீனக் (மேற்குலக) கல்வியிடமிருந்து பக்குவமாகப் பாதுகாத்து வந்தனர்.

இந்தக் கால ஓட்டத்தில்தான் இஸ்லாமியப் பண்பாட்டு ரீதியிலான கல்விநிலையம், நவீன (தாராளவாத) பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள் என இருவகை பிரிவு கல்விக்கூடங்களும், இரண்டு தரப்பு சிந்தனையாளர்களை உருவாகியது. ஒன்று ‘உலமா’, இவர்கள் இஸ்லாமிய இயல் சார்ந்து மார்க்க விதிகள், வரலாறு, ஆய்வு என எல்லாம் தெரிந்திருந்தாலும் உலகக்கல்வி சார்ந்து அறிவு இவர்களிடம் குறைவாகவே இருக்கும். மேற்குலகக் கல்வியில் பயின்று வந்த மற்றொரு பிரிவை சார்ந்தவர்கள் உலக அளவில் நிபுணர்களாகச் சிறந்து விளங்கினாலும், இஸ்லாமிய அடிப்படைகளைகூட சரிவரக் கடைபிக்காதவராகத்தான் இருந்து வந்தனர். இவர்களில் வெகு சிலர் மட்டுமே இரண்டிலும் சமமான, தகுந்த அறிவை பெற்றிருந்தனர்.

இன்றைய இஸ்லாமியச் சமூகம், மேற்குலகக் கல்விக்கு கொடுக்கும் முக்கியத்துவத்தை இஸ்லாமிய அடிப்படைக் கல்விக்கு கொடுப்பதில்லை என்பதே உண்மை. மேற்குலகம் கட்டுப்படுத்தும் நவீன பொருட்களாகவே தங்கள் பிள்ளைகளை உருவாக்க பெற்றோர்கள் விரும்புகின்றனர். வெளிநாடுகளுக்கு சென்றேனும் நல்ல நிலைக்கு வரவேண்டும் என்கின்ற அந்த உயரிய நோக்கத்தின் அடித்தட்டில் இஸ்லாமியக் கல்வியைக் கொடுக்க மறந்து விடுகின்றனர். நவீன உலகின் இஸ்லாமிய பல்கலைக்கழகங்கள்கூட மேற்குலகப் பாடபுத்தகங்களை வைத்துதான் போதிக்கின்றனவே தவிர இஸ்லாமிய அகீதாக்களை சொல்லித் தருவதில்லை. குறைந்த இஸ்லாமிய அறிவை மட்டுமே பெற்றுகொண்டு, நவீனயுகப் பிரச்சனைகளுக்கு தீர்வளிக்கமுடியாத  ‘உலமா’க்கலாக வெளியே உலா வருவது, இஸ்லாமிய உலகிற்கு பாதகம் விளைவிப்பாதாகவே அமையும்.

இஸ்லாத்தின் உறுதித்தன்மையை குறித்து சொந்த சமூகத்தினரயே சிந்திக்க வைத்த பெருமை மேற்குலகக் கல்விக்கு அதிகம் உண்டு. ஆனால், அங்குதான் பிரச்சனையும் ஆரம்பமாகிறது. இஸ்லாத்தை எவ்வாறு புரிந்துகொள்ள வேண்டும் என்று, மேற்குலகம் போதிக்கின்றதோ, அவ்வழியிலேயே போதிய இஸ்லாமிய அறிவு இல்லாமல், இன்றைய முஸ்லிம் இளைய சமூகம் பயணிக்கும் அவலம் உருவாகியுள்ளது. இஸ்லாமிய அறிவை ஊட்டாமல், வேற்றுமத பள்ளிகளில் சேர்த்தால், பிள்ளை எந்த அடிப்படையில் வளரும் என்பதை உணரமுடியாத முட்டாள்களல்ல நாம். ஆதலால், இஸ்லாமிய அடிப்படைகளை மறைத்து, நவீனம் என்ற போர்வையில் கற்பிக்கப்படும் மேற்குலகக் கல்வியை மாற்றியமைத்து, இளைய சமூகத்தினருக்கு பயனுள்ள கல்வியைக் கொடுக்க வேண்டிய பொறுப்பாளராக இறைவனால், நாம் நியமிக்கப்பட்டிருக்கின்றோம். அதில் முக்கியமானதாக, இஸ்லாமியக் கல்வியை பொதுவுடைமையாக (எல்லோருக்கும் ஆகுமானதாக) செயல்படுத்தி, இஸ்லாமிய கல்வியில் நவீன உபாதைகளைக் கொண்டு கற்பிக்க வேண்டும். ஏன்னேன்றுச் சொன்னால், இன்று மேற்குலக கல்வியில் பயின்று வெளிவரக்கூடிய முஸ்லிம் ஆசிரியர்கள், வகுப்புகளிலே இஸ்லாமிய பார்வையோடு  நவீனங்களை அணுகுவது கிடையாது. மேலும், இஸ்லாமிய கொள்கைகளையே சரியாக அணுகத் தெரியாத இவர்களை முழு அறிவை பெற்றவர்களாக நம்பி தலைமுறையை வீணடித்துவிடவும் முடியாது.

இன்றைய இளைய சமூகம் நவீனக் கல்வியை பெறுவதில் மிக ஆர்வம் காட்டி வருவது ஒருபுறம் சரியென்றாலும், அதன் பின் ஒழிந்திருக்கு இஸ்லாமிய எதிர்ப்பு உணர்வை விதைக்கக்கூடிய மேற்குலக சிந்தனைகள் மிகவும் ஆபத்தானவை என்பதை புரிந்து கொள்ள வேண்டும். அதற்காக  முஸ்லிம்கள் நவீனத்தை படிக்கவே கூடாது என்ற தடையை நாம் இங்கே விதிக்கவில்லை. மாறாக, இன்றைய அறிவியலில், அரசியலில், பொருளாதரத்தில் இஸ்லாமியச் சிந்தனை நோக்குடன் செயல்பட்டு, ஒவ்வொரு முஸ்லிம் மாணவரும் தன் துறையில் வல்லுனர்களாக/நிபுணர்களாக உருவாக வேண்டும். எதையும் இஸ்லாமிய சிந்தனையுடன் அணுகுவது ஒவ்வொரு முஸ்லிமின் எண்ணோட்டத்தில் அமைந்தாக வேண்டும், இல்லையென்று சொன்னால், நாளை எதனை எதிர்த்து இஸ்லாம் போரிடச்சொன்னதோ, அதன் அடிமைகளாகவே நாம் மாறியிருப்போம். இது நம் சமூகத்தை (முஸ்லிம்களை) காப்பாற்ற மட்டுமல்ல,  எப்படி இஸ்லாம் ஒட்டுமொத்த மனிதகுலத்தை வழிகேட்டிலிருந்து தடுக்க வந்ததோ, அதன் கடமை ஒரு முஸ்லிமாக நம் மீது சுமத்தப்பட்டுள்ளது.

தன் பிள்ளையை நல்ல இடத்தில் படிக்க வைத்து, சமூகத்தில் அந்தஸ்த்து மிக்கவனாக கொண்டுவர வேண்டும் என்ற ஆசை எல்லாப் பெற்றோர்கள் மத்தியில் இருந்தாலும்,. இதில் அந்த “நல்ல இடம்” எனும் வார்த்தைக்கு பெற்றோர்கள், எந்த அளவுகோலை வைத்தாக வேண்டும், என்பதே விவாதத்துக்குரியது. ஏழை, நடுத்தர சிலரை தவிர மற்ற அனைவரும் இஸ்லாமிய கல்வி நிலையங்களை விடுத்து, நவீனங்களை விரும்பி, மற்ற-மத கல்வி நிலையங்களில் சேர்த்துவதுண்டு. இஸ்லாம் சொல்லித் தருகின்ற எந்த அறிவும் இல்லாமலும், தன் ஆரம்ப கால வரலாறு தெரியாமலும், வளருகின்ற முஸ்லிம் மற்றப்பிரிவு மாணவர்களை போலத்தான் நாளைய சமூக உருவாக்கப்படுவான்.

இறுதிமுடிவு வழங்காத, எந்த விவகாரமும் பயனற்றது என சொல்லித் தரும் இஸ்லாத்தை பின்பற்றுபவர்களாக, தன் துறையில் நிபுணத்துவம் பெறுகின்ற ஆசை மட்டும் இருந்தால் போதாது, அந்த நிபுணம் எந்த விவகாரத்தையும் இஸ்லாமிய கண்ணோட்டத்தில் அணுகுவதாக அமைதல் வேண்டும். இன்றைய நவீனமுறைக் கல்வி வெறும் தேர்வில் மதிப்பெண் எடுப்பதற்கும், பணம் சம்பாதிப்பதற்கும் மட்டும் என மனிதனை இயந்திரமாக மாற்றிக் கற்பித்துக் கொண்டிருக்கும் நிலையில், முஸ்லிம்களுக்கான ஆதரவையும், பிரச்சனைகளுக்கான தீர்வுகளையும் இந்த நவீன கூட்டத்தாரிடம் எப்படி எதிர்பார்க்க முடியும்?

உண்மையில், இஸ்லாத்தை பற்றிய எந்த அறிவும் போதிக்காத மேற்குலகக் கல்வியை சிறந்த கல்வி என நினைத்து அவமானத்தை பெருமையாக, நாம் கொண்டாடிக் கொண்டிருக்கிறோம். ஆனால், கல்வியே சிறந்த ஆயுதம் (Knowledge is power) என்பதை வாக்கியமாக மட்டுமே படித்துக் கொண்டிருந்த சமூகத்திற்கு மத்தியில், அதனை வைத்து உலக அதிகாரத்தையே பிடித்த பெருமை மேற்குலக சிந்தனையாளர்களுக்கு உண்டு. கல்வி துறையிலே சிந்தனை  ரீதியாகவும், நடைமுறை கையாடல் ரீதியாகவும் முஸ்லிம்கள் காட்டிய அலட்சியமே இதற்கு முக்கிய காரணம். நவீனக் கல்வியில் நிபுணராக இருக்கும் ஒரு முஸ்லிமைவிட, நவீன அறிவியலிலும், இஸ்லாத்திலும் ஒருசேர அறிவை வைத்திருப்பவரையே சிறந்தவர் என சொல்லக்கூடும். முழுமையாக மற்றியமைக்க வேண்டியது கல்விமுறையை மட்டுமல்ல, முஸ்லிம்களின் நவீனத்தின் மீதான எண்ணோட்டத்தையும்தான். ஆன்மீகம் கல்வியறிவை கொடுத்தே ஆக வேண்டும், அதையே இஸ்லாம் செய்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது.

A science without an end has no merit in Islam, and so a knowledge. The Islamic approach toward the cultivation of knowledge has always been holistic and integrated.

கட்டுரை எழுத்து –  ஜுனைத் அஹமது

தமிழில் – முஹம்மது சர்ஜுன் சா.

 

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